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A disease is a condition of the body which causes discomfort or dysfunction. A disease can be caused by a body organ becoming faulty due to age, environment, diet, faulty DNA or infection due to bacteria or viruses.
Typical diseases found in aquariums:
- Fungus and fungal diseases - Fungus (Mycosis) infections
- Bacterial diseases - Finrot, Dropsy, Columnaris, Cotton-Wool, Cotton-Mouth, Flexibacter, Mouth Fungus.
- Viruses and viral diseases - Lymphocystis, Sporozoa, Neon disease, Microsporidium, mixosporidium
- Temperature Diseases - Too low or too high
- Poison diseases - Black Chin, Chlorine or chloramine, Metal, Ammonia, New Tank Syndrome, Old Tank Syndrome, Nitrite, Nitrate
- Dietary diseases - too much protein, too little, incorrect diets
See Parasites for illnesses caused by the invasion of the body by another creature.
|Disease causing organism||Condition||Symptoms||Likely Causes||Remedies|
|Bacteria: which may include Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Flexibacter or Mycobacteriosis||Fin Rot or Tail Rot||Torn and tattered edges or white edged holes in fins, red streaks in the fin and tail, white edges to the fins and tail.||Fish may appear lethargic and tired.||Bacteria often infect fish when they becomes stressed, or when their immune system has been compromised.
There are many causes for this including:
|Bacteria:usually Flavobacterium columnare (Flexibacter)||Mouth Rot||Rotting/erosion of the mouth areas. Small grey or white marks on the head, fins, gills and mouth that grow to resemble white 'fungus like' tuff, loss of colour||Fish may appear lethargic, They may have clamped fins. Loss of appetite||Treatment|
|Bacteria: which may include Aeromonas, Pseudomonas and Flexibacter||Gill Rot||Inflamed gills with rotting white patches||Fish may appear lethargic and tired, have clamped fins, lose of appetite.
Fish may struggle to breathe (check your waters nitrite levels) and appear to be gasping at the water surface.
|Bacteria:Vibriosis||Ulcers or red streaks||Red areas or open wounds or sores on the body that have been infected||Fish may appear lethargic and tired, have clamped fins, lose of appetite.||Poor water quality.
|Bacteria:Mycobacteriosis||Fish TB||Thin appearance, bloated areas in gut area of body, crocked spine, loss of colour, ulcers.
Reproduction stops in females. Guppies and other live-bearers often strongly affected
Very similar symptoms to other bacterial infections above.
|Fish often appear lethargic and tired, hide in corners near the bottom.||Incurable mostly.
Euthanise animal. This very hardy bacteria lives in the gut and internal organs of the animal so rapidly infects others in the tank. Long term quarantine of several months needed to ensure you don't import it.
|Parasites||White Spot (Ich)||Tiny white spots on the skin and fins, extra skin mucus.||Fish may appear irritated and flick against objects;they may look uncomfortable; loss of appetite||Parasites often infect fish when their immune system has been compromised.
There are many causes including:
Poor water quality,
Poor food variety,
Adding infected fish,
|Parasites||Costia (Ichthyobodo)||Cloudiness of the skin caused by excess mucus||Fish may appear irritated and flick against objects;they may look uncomfortable; loss of appetite;lethargy;clamped fins, fish may rest on the bottom for long periods.||Treatment|
|Parasites||Trichodina||Grey patches on skin if highly infected||Rubbing against objects, clamped fins, lethargy. Fish may rest on the bottom for long periods if seriously infected.||Treatment|
|Fungus||Often Saprolegnia||Grey white patches on skin or gills that resemble tuffs of cotton wool||Fish may appear lethargic and show a loss of appetite.||Poor Water quality.
Fungus is a secondary infection that attacks fish on open wounds from other fish or other injuries, such as ulcers.
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